The Bhaumakaras

In the first, half, of the eighth century A. D. a dynasty called Bhauma or Kar (also known as Bhaumakara) established its rule over the coastal belt of Orissa. The capital of this dynasty, called Guhadevapataka or Guhesvarapataka was situated near modern Jajpur town of the Jajpur district. The main literary source for constructing the history of the Bhauma-Karas are the Vishnu Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Harivamsa Purana, Dathavamsa, Gandavyuha and Hudud-alAlam etc. Besides, the inscriptions and grants of the rulers of this dynasty like Neulpur plate, Ganeshgumpha inscription, Dhauli cave inscription, Terundia, Dharakote, Dhenkanal, Talcher, Ambagaon, Angul, Talatalia and several other plates throw much light on the politico-economic and religious history of this dynasty.


1. Origin and chronology of the Bhaumakaras
2. Dynastic History of the Bhaumakaras
3. Administration of the Bhaumakaras
4. Religion During the Bhaumakaras
5. Society During the Bhaumakaras
6. Economy During the Bhaumakaras


The Bhauma-Kara rule was a landmark in the socio-cultural life of Orissa. It brought a stable administration with full control over the feudatories. The Bhauma-Kings paid attention to the growth of trade and commerce of the land. They were great builders too. The period witnessed the coherence among various religions like Buddhism, Saivism, Saktism and Vaishnavism. A culminating trend among these religions began during this period. Their capital Guhesvarapataka (modern Viraja in Jajpur) was studded with ‘various temples associated with Saiva, Sakta and Vaishnava faith. However, the glorious rule of the Bhauma-Karas ended with the capture of power by the Somavamsis.