Brief History of Medieval Odisha
Between the 11th and 16th centuries CE, the name Kalinga was gradually replaced by Odra Desa, Uddisa and eventually Odisha.
Odisha Under Ganga Rule
By the end of the 12th Century A. D. Anantavarma Chodagangadeva (1078-1191) of the Ganga dynasty is credited with having ruled over the region extending from the Ganga to the Godavari. He shifted his capital from Kalinganagar in Parlakhemundi to Cuttack.Vaishnavism received royal patronage and Vaishnavite temples were built at Mukhlingam, Shrikurmam, Simachalam and Puri.The temple at Puri was completed by Anangabhimadeva. In the 13th century the Ganga empire had the power to thwart a Muslim invasion. During Ganga rule Odishan temple architecture reached its zenith with the construction of the famous Sun Temple of Konark by Narasimhadeva I (A. D. 1238-1264). It is recognised as the crowning glory of Hindu architecture.
Odisha Under Gajapati Rule
Then came the Suryavami Gajapatis. The first Gajapati King, Gajapati Kapilendradeva (1435-1466), defeated the Muslim ruler of Bengal, the Hindu ruler of Vijayanagar and Kanchi, and the Bahamani Sultan. Kapilendra in fact himself advanced to Bidar, the capital of the Bahamani Empire. His empire extended from the Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the South. His successors retained their hold over an extensive territory. During the rule of Prataprudradeva, from 1497 AD to 1541 AD, the kingdom extended from the Hooghly and Midnapore districts of West Bengal to the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. With his death the Gajapati rule declined. Mukundadeva the last independent king of Odisha, was killed in 1568 while fighting Afghans of Bengal. With his death Odisha lost its independence and thus became almost the last Hindu Kingdom of India to fall to the Muslims.
Odisha Under Mughals
The Moghuls ruled Orissa for a little over a century. During Aurangzeb’s rule, however, a revolt was started under the leadership of Raja Krishna Chandra Bhanj of Mayurbhanj, but it was suppressed, though with great difficulty. After Aurangzeb’s death, when the Moghul Empire declined, Odisha passed under the rule of the independent Nawabs of Bengal.
Odisha Under Marathas
In 1741 the Bhonsala Raja of Nagpur invaded Orissa under the leadership of Bhaskar Ram (Bhaskar Pandit). Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, was compelled to code Orissa to the Marathas whose rule lasted until the British conquered it in 1803.
Sources and References:
1. History of odisha, Vol-I by Y.K Sahu
2. Early History of Odisha by M.K. Sahoo
3. History of Odisha by Sahu, Sahu and Mishra
4. Odisha Reference 2004 Published by Government of Odisha
2. The History Files
3. Archives of India