The Paika rebellion of 1817 was one of the significant event in the history of modern Odisha. The people of Odisha had welcomed the British Government in order to get relief from the exploitation of the Marathas. However, their hopes and aspirations were shattered on the rock of frustration when they experienced the administrative structure and economic exploitation, the two tentacles of the British imperialism. Added to these miseries were the faulty land revenue policy, salt monopoly, deprivation of the local servants from the British administration, the unsympathetic attitude of the rulers towards the ruled etc. which discharged poison in the mind of the people of Odisha. The British rule reached the nadir point of its degeneration when Jayi Rajaguru, the indomitable minister of Raja Mukundadeva 11 of Khurda was hanged and the estate of Khurda was confiscated permanently. The direct management of Khurda from 1805 by the British authority, not only flared up the anger of the native people but prepared the ground for an armed rebellion by the Paikas that took place in 1817 under the leadership of the commander of the Raja of Khurda, Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mahapatra Bhramarabara Ray. This rebellion is famous as the Paik rebellion.
The Paika rebellion of 1817 opened the eyes of the British government. A committee, consisting of two members, was appointed to enquire the causes and suggest remedies of the rebellion. Impey, the Magistrate of Cuttack and his successor Waiter Ewer with General Martindell looked into the factors regarding such rebellion. The economic factors, judicial maladies and mal-administration were prominent causes, as per their suggestions, that had prompted people to be rebellious. The Paika rebellion brought many changes in the administrative, judicial, economic and religious life of the people of Odisha.